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Showing spades after 1m (1)

Partner opens 1 or 1 and the next hand overcalls 1.  A long time ago (and maybe still, in a galaxy far away....) you would double for penalties and bid 1 if you had 4 or more spades.  Then along came the Sputnik double, allowing you to double with spades.  For quite a while, the mainstream approach, in England at least, was to make use of this extra option by doubling to show exactly 4 spades and bidding 1 with 5 (or more) spades.  This is probably still the default approach at club level.

However, I have seen two other approaches to this situation.  Some people went back to the old-fashioned idea that if you had spades you could bid them, whether you had 4 or 5, leaving the double to show a hand that wanted to compete but didn't have spades.  More recently, more people seem to be swapping these two options around, using a double to show 4 or more spades, and bidding 1 on hands that want to compete but don't have 4 spades.  Which approach is better and why?

Bid spades if you've got them and double if you haven't
Double with spades and bid 1 if you haven't
Use both bids to show spades but distinguish between 4 and 5-card suits
Use double for penalties!
Something else

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