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Is there a PROVEN best carding method?

There are fierce advocates for upside-down count & attitude carding, as well as staunch defenders of standard count/attitude. The former point to preservation of high spots in the suit of choice, and reduction of confusion over declarer false cards. The latter point to the potential that encouragement by a low card might lead to blockage of the suit, and that variance of spot-card play when leading vs following suit can be a source of confusion with ups-down.

Leave aside other systems ( standard count/ups-down attitude; Lavinthal; odd-even; etc.,, etc.), and please don't cite anecdotes and/or simple personal preference, when answering this:

Is there an evidence-based, outcome-based, mathematically-based rationale for choosing between standard vs upside-down carding?

Yes. Here is the evidence:...
No. Its entirely based on personal experience/preference.

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