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Law 45.C.4.b regarding an "unintended designation" (and its unintneded consequences!)

A defender, on lead, intends to lead the HA. As soon as he lays his card on the table, he realizes that he has pulled and played the C5, the card next to the HA in his hand. He immediately announces, "oops, that is not the card I intended to play", but does not name or face the HA, his intended play. The director is then called.

Law 45.C.4.(b) states:

"Until his partner has played a card, a player may change an unintended designation if he does so without pause for thought."

Does this allow the player to substitute the HA for the C5?

The wording "until his partner has played a card" would seem to apply specifically to the defensive side of the table as opposed to the declaring/dummy side of the table.   On the other hand, the term "designation" would usually be associated with what a declarer would do when verbally calling for a card from dummy.  So what is the distinction, if any between the "designation" of a card and the "play" of a card?  Does the play of the card itself cause it to be the "designated" play?  And if declarer's "designation" from dummy is unintended, then who is the "partner" in this situation, declarer himself?  And if the unintended designation is from declarer's hand, is the dummy the "partner" whose play of a card ends the allowance of a change in designation?   Doesn't dummy only play a card at the behest of declarer?  

If the substitution is then allowed, does the C5 become just a minor penalty card, according to Law 50.B:

"A single card below the rank of an honor exposed unintentionally (as in playing two cards to a trick,or in dropping a card accidentally) becomes a minor penalty card"

So if the defender's HA wins the trick, would he then be allowed to lead any card, except any low C other than the 5?

Or would the C5 be a major penalty card, allowing declarer his usual options?

If the C5 were just a minor penalty card in the above situation, suppose instead that that after playing the C5, and announcing that this was not his intended play as above, the player then announces, before calling the director, "I actually intended to play the HA". Are the C5 and HA now both major penalty cards, according card Laws 49 and 50.B?

Law 49:"....when a defender names a card as being in his hand, each such card becomes a penalty card "

and Law 50.B:"....When one defender has two or more penalty cards, all such cards become major penalty cards"

Any help in clarifying this will be greatly appreciated.

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