Accusation of Plagiarism against Mark Horton

Appendix


The Man who would be King, by Mark Horton

John Huston’s «The Man Who Would Be King» is swashbuckling adventure, pure and simple, from the hand of a master. It’s unabashed and thrilling and fun.The movie invites comparison with the great action films like "Gunga Din" and "Mutiny on the Bounty", and with Huston’s own classic "The Treasure of the Sierra Madre": We get strong characterizations, we get excitement, we even get to laugh every once in a while.

Huston’s casting of Michael Caine and Sean Connery is exactly right. They work together so well, they interact so easily and with such camaraderie, that watching them is a pleasure.

The movie proceeds with impossible coincidences, untold riches, romances and betrayals, heroic last words and - best of all - some genuinely witty scenes between Connery and Caine, and when it’s over we haven’t learned a single thing worth knowing and there’s not even a moral, to speak of, but we’ve had fun.

The Man Who Would Be King, by Roger Ebert

John Huston's "The Man Who Would Be King" is swashbuckling adventure, pure and simple, from the hand of a master. It's unabashed and thrilling and fun. The movie invites comparison with the great action films like "Gunga Din" and "Mutiny on the Bounty," and with Huston's own classic "The Treasure of the Sierra Madre": We get strong characterizations, we get excitement, we even get to laugh every once in a while.

The action epics of the last twenty years seem to have lost their sense of humor; it's as if once the budget goes over five million dollars, directors think they have to be deadly serious. "Lawrence of Arabia" was a great movie, but introspective and solemn, and efforts such as "Doctor Zhivago" and "War and Peace" never dared to smile. Huston's movie isn't like that. It reflects his personality and his own best films; it's open, sweeping, and lusty -- and we walk out feeling exhilarated.

Huston waited a long time to make this film, and its history is a Hollywood legend. He originally cast Bogart and Gable, but then Bogart died, and the project was shelved until 1975. Maybe it's just as well. We need movies like this more now than we did years ago, when Hollywood wasn't shy about straightforward action films. And Huston's eventual casting of Michael Caine and Sean Connery is exactly right.

They work together so well, they interact so easily and with such camaraderie, that watching them is a pleasure. They never allow themselves to be used merely as larger-than-life heroes, photographed against vast landscapes. Kipling's story, and Huston's interpretation of it, requires a lot more than that; it requires acting of a subtle and difficult sort, even if the sheer energy of the movie makes it look easy.

The two of them play former British soldiers who vow to march off into Afghanistan or somewhere and find a kingdom not yet touched by civilization. With their guns and training, they think they'll be able to take over pretty easily, manipulate the local high priests, and set themselves up as rulers. They tell their plan to an obscure colonial editor named Kipling (played very nicely by Christopher Plummer) and then they set off into the mountains. After the obligatory close calls, including an avalanche that somehow saves their lives, they find their lost land and it's just as they expected it would be.

The natives aren't too excited by their new rulers at first, but a lucky Masonic key chain saves the day -- never mind how -- and Connery finds himself worshiped as a deity. He even gets to like it, and condescends to Caine, who remains a Cockney and unimpressed. The movie proceeds with impossible coincidences, untold riches, romances and betrayals, and heroic last words and -- best of all -- some genuinely witty scenes between Connery and Caine, and when it's over we haven't learned a single thing worth knowing and there's not even a moral, to speak of, but we've had fun. It's great that someone still has the gift of making movies like this; even Huston, after thirty years, must have wondered whether he still knew how.


De Nachtwacht, by Mark Horton

Militia Company of District II under the Command of Captain Frans Banninck Cocq, also known as The Shooting Company of Frans Banning Cocq and Willem van Ruytenburch, but commonly referred to as The Night Watch, is a painting by Rembrandt van Rijn. It is in the collection of the Amsterdam Museum but is prominently displayed in the Rijksmuseum as the best known painting in its collection. It is one of the most famous Dutch Golden Age paintings.

The Night Watch, by Wikipedia

Militia Company of District II under the Command of Captain Frans Banninck Cocq, also known as The Shooting Company of Frans Banning Cocq and Willem van Ruytenburch, but commonly referred to as The Night Watch (Dutch: De Nachtwacht), is a 1642 painting by Rembrandt van Rijn. It is in the collection of the Amsterdam Museum but is prominently displayed in the Rijksmuseum as the best known painting in its collection. The Night Watch is one of the most famous Dutch Golden Age paintings.


It’s bridge, Jim, but not as we know it, by Mark Horton

The first episode of Star Trek was broadcast on Sept. 8, 1966 on the American television network NBC. Since then it’s become an enormous franchise, spawning feature films, spin-off series, magazines, books, songs, toys and of course, many famous phrases.

It's life, Jim, but not as we know it, by the BBC

The first episode of 'Star Trek' was broadcast on 08 September 1966 on the American television channel, NBC.

Since then it's become an enormous franchise, spawning feature films, spin-off series, magazines, books, songs, toys and of course, many famous phrases.


Beware of Banana Skins, by Mark Horton

Before the discovery of its comedic potential, the banana skin was considered a real public hazard. In the mid-19th century, a man named Carl B. Frank began importing Panamanian bananas to New York City. The fruit quickly became a popular street food throughout America, but people often tossed their rubbish into the streets and rotting banana peel was a slime-covered booby trap.

How Did Slipping on a Banana Peel Become a Comedy Staple? by Laura Turner Garrison

Before the discovery of its comedic potential, the banana skin was considered a real public hazard. In the mid-19th century, a man named Carl B. Frank began importing Panamanian bananas to New York City. The fruit quickly became a popular street food throughout America, but the surge in urban migration and lack of sanitation regulation posed a major problem in cities. People often tossed their garbage into the streets, leading to a general foul stench and public waste buildup. A fresh banana peel might seem non-threatening, but a rotting banana peel was a slime-covered booby trap.

This is a very long article so I'm not going to quote the entire thing. Follow the links to see for yourself: you will find that almost every word in Horton's version appears on the Mental Floss original. The first paragraph is reproduced above.


Never On Sunday, by Mark Horton

In times gone by Sunday was, in many western countries, observed as a day of rest. That ceased to be the case some time ago, but historically sporting contests did not take place on Sundays. In 1640, Puritan clerics at both Maidstone and Harbledown, near Canterbury, denounced cricket as 'profane', especially if played on Sunday. It was only in 1969 that the limited over Sunday League started in England & Wales. Sunday January 6th 1974 was the historic day which saw four FA Cup Third Round ties played, the first match on a Sunday being the game between Cambridge United & Oldham Athletic which kicked off in the morning.

Some of the stories, by footballsite.co.uk

Things did change. Sunday January 6th 1974 was the historic day which saw four FA Cup Third Round ties played, the first match on a Sunday being the Cambridge United v Oldham match which kicked off in the morning. Two weeks later, on January 20th, a dozen grounds staged League football for the first time on the Sunday, the first of those kicking off in the morning being Millwall v Fulham in the Second Division.

The sentence highlighted in green was taken from Wikipedia (section Breaking The Sabbath).


Grand Slam, by Mark Horton

In 1931 a highly publicized contract-bridge event was dubbed the “Battle of the Century.” It was waged between Ely Culbertson and Sidney Lenz, each bringing their own trademarked play style, and throughout the next six weeks daily results would be posted in newspapers, with the New York Times going as far as to cover it hand by hand with analyses. Not missing the opportunity, Warner Brothers capitalized on the topical material with a comedic satire entitled Grand Slam, which similarly culminates with a bridge game between partners employing different systems. Paul Lukas plays Peter Stanislavsky, a waiter and piano virtuoso who, by happenstance, bests the reigning bridge expert and becomes one half of the “Bridge Sweethearts of America” with his new bride, Marcia (Loretta Young). The Stanislavsky method is notable because it is designed to minimize the conflicts between married couples during the game, and as such there are a quite a few humorous scenes in which bitter partners fight each other as they play. Lukas and Young are charming together, and there are a handful of laughs - the film pokes fun at the game of bridge often by referring to it as a “game for sissies!”

Grand Slam, by "Eric"

It might be hard to believe now, but in late 1931 a highly publicized contract-bridge event was dubbed the “Battle of the Century.” It was waged between Ely Culbertson and Sidney Lenz, each bringing their own dubbed play style, and throughout the next six weeks daily results would be posted in newspapers, with the New York Times going as far as to cover it hand by hand with analyses. Not missing the opportunity, Warner Brothers capitalized on the topical material with a comedic satire entitled Grand Slam, which similarly culminates with a bridge game between partners employing different systems. Paul Lukas plays Peter Stanislavsky, a waiter and piano virtuoso who, by happenstance, bests the reigning bridge expert and becomes one half of the “Bridge Sweethearts of America” with his new bride, Marcia (Loretta Young). The Stanislavsky method is notable because it is designed to minimize the conflicts between married couples during the game, and as such there are a handful of humorous scenes in which bitter partners fight each other as they play. As a satire of publicity, it is mildly successful and might have made an even greater impression had it not devolved into sub-standard slapstick chaos by the end. Case in point: Frank McHugh, the classic drunk archetype in early-1930s Warner Brothers films, gives a very good performance as a cynical ghost writer. By the end of the picture, however, he’s relegated back to hiccups and incessant giggling. Lukas and Young are charming together, and there are a handful of laughs – the film pokes fun at the game of bridge often by referring to it as a “game for sissies!”

Note: the word "sissy" is considered a homophobic slur, so not really appropriate content for a bridge article.


Minority Report, by Mark Horton

Minority Report is a 2002 American neo-noir science fiction thriller film directed by Steven Spielberg. In April 2054, Captain John Anderton (Tom Cruise) is chief of the highly controversial Washington, D.C., Precrime police force. They use visions of the future generated by three ‘precogs’, mutated humans with precognitive abilities, to stop murders before they happen; because of this, the city has been murder-free for six years.

Minority Report, by Jordan Fernandez

In the year 2054, Captain John Anderton (Tom Cruise) is chief of the highly controversial Washington, D.C., PreCrime police force. They use visions of the future generated by three "precogs", mutated humans (children of drug addicts) with precognitive abilities, to stop murders before they happen; because of this, the city has been murder-free for six years.

That opening sentence is likely from Wikipedia too.


Every Hand an Adventure, by Mark Horton

EHAA (Every Hand An Adventure) is a highly natural bidding system characterized by four-card majors, sound opening bids, undisciplined weak two-bids in all four suits and a mini notrump, usually of 10-12 points.

An EHAA two-bid shows 6-12 high card points, and a five-card or longer suit. There are no restrictions on suit quality (♠87654 and ♠AKQJ8765 both qualify). EHAA bidders use a “get in quick, get out quick” style, which permits interference or an opening bid in nearly every auction, protected by fairly strict requirements on further bids by the partnership. EHAA twobids are made in all four suits; there is no forcing opening bid in the system.

EHAA, by Wikipedia

EHAA (Every Hand An Adventure) is a highly natural bidding system in contract bridge characterized by four-card majors, sound opening bids, undisciplined weak two-bids in all four suits and a mini notrump, usually of 10–12 high card points.

An EHAA two-bid shows six to twelve high card points, and a five card or longer suit. There are no restrictions on suit quality (xxxxx and AKQJxxxx both qualify). EHAA bidders use a "get in quick, get out quick" style, which permits interference or an opening bid in nearly every auction, protected by fairly strict requirements on further bids by the partnership. EHAA two-bids are made in all four suits; there is no forcing opening bid in EHAA.

Interesting that he isn't even capable of describing a bridge system in his own words.


The Desert Song, by Mark Horton

The Desert Song is an operetta with music by Sigmund Romberg and book and lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II, Otto Harbach and Frank Mandel. It was inspired by the 1925 uprising of the Riffs, a group of Moroccan fighters, against French colonial rule. It was also inspired by stories of Lawrence of Arabia aiding native guerrillas. Many tales romanticizing Arab North Africa were in vogue, including Beau Geste and The Son of the Sheik.

The Desert Song, by Wikipedia

The Desert Song is an operetta with music by Sigmund Romberg and book and lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II, Otto Harbach and Frank Mandel. It was inspired by the 1925 uprising of the Riffs, a group of Moroccan fighters, against French colonial rule. It was also inspired by stories of Lawrence of Arabia aiding native guerrillas. Many tales romanticizing Arab North Africa were in vogue, including Beau Geste and The Son of the Sheik.

I'm not sure why an Egypt vs France bridge match reminded him of this film.


An Aside, by Mark Horton

An aside is a dramatic device in which a character speaks to the audience. By convention, the audience is to realize that the character’s speech is unheard by the other characters on stage. It may be addressed to the audience expressly (in character or out) or represent an unspoken thought. An aside is usually a brief comment, rather than a speech, such as a monologue or soliloquy. Unlike a public announcement, it occurs within the context of the play. An aside is, by convention, a true statement of a character’s thought; a character may be mistaken in an aside, but may not be dishonest.

It was frequently used by Shakespeare and more recently, by Ian Richardson’s character Francis Urquhart in the 1990 BBC mini-series House of Cards, as well as Kevin Spacey’s character Frank Underwood in the 2013 Netflix original series of the same name.

Aside, by Wikipedia

An aside is a dramatic device in which a character speaks to the audience. By convention the audience is to realize that the character's speech is unheard by the other characters on stage. It may be addressed to the audience expressly (in character or out) or represent an unspoken thought. An aside is usually a brief comment, rather than a speech, such as a monologue or soliloquy. Unlike a public announcement, it occurs within the context of the play. An aside is, by convention, a true statement of a character's thought; a character may be mistaken in an aside, but may not be dishonest.

More recently, it is used by Ian Richardson's character Francis Urquhart in the 1990 BBC mini-series House of Cards, as well as Kevin Spacey's character Frank Underwood in the 2013 Netflix original series of the same name. It can be used to explain the often complex politics on the show, describe what the character's plans/emotions are or simply for humorous effect.

This article also appears in Bulletin 12, Worlds 2017, Page 7.


Lady Luck, by Mark Horton

The definition of luck varies by the philosophical, religious, mystical, and emotional context of the one interpreting it; according to the classic Webster's dictionary, luck is "a purposeless, unpredictable and uncontrollable force that shapes events favourably or unfavourably for an individual, group or cause". The author Max Gunther defines it as "events that influence one's life and are seemingly beyond one's control."

A game may depend on luck rather than skill or effort. For example, chess does not involve any random factors such as throwing dice, while dominoes has the "luck of the draw" when selecting tiles. In poker, especially games with a communal board, pure luck may decide a winning hand.

Luck, by Wikipedia

The definition of luck (or chance) varies by the philosophical, religious, mystical, and emotional context of the one interpreting it; according to the classic Noah Webster's dictionary, luck is "a purposeless, unpredictable and uncontrollable force that shapes events favourably or unfavourably for an individual, group or cause". Yet the author Max Gunther defines it as "events that influence one's life and are seemingly beyond one's control".

A game may depend on luck rather than skill or effort. For example, chess does not involve any random factors such as throwing dice, while dominoes has the "luck of the draw" when selecting tiles. In poker, especially games with a communal board, pure luck may decide a winning hand.

It's amusing to note that Horton here plagiarises text which itself cites its sources correctly. A citation-by-proxy, perhaps.


Norway vs England, by Mark Horton

I, Claudius is an unfinished 1937 film adaptation of the novels I, Claudius and Claudius the God by Robert Graves. Starring Charles Laughton in the title role, the production was dogged by adverse circumstances, culminating in a car accident involving co-star Merle Oberon that caused filming to be ended before completion. Footage from the production was incorporated into a 1965 documentary on the making of the film, The Epic That Never Was.

I, Claudius, by Wikipedia

I, Claudius is an unfinished 1937 film adaptation of the novels I, Claudius (1934) and Claudius the God (1935) by Robert Graves. Produced by Alexander Korda, the film was directed by Josef von Sternberg, with Charles Laughton in the title role. The production was dogged by adverse circumstances, culminating in a car accident involving co-star Merle Oberon that caused filming to be ended before completion. Footage from the production was incorporated into a 1965 documentary on the making of the film, The Epic That Never Was.


Blame it on Marco Polo, by Mark Horton

Marco Polo was a merchant traveller from the Venetian Republic whose travels are recorded in Il Milione, a book which did much to introduce Europeans to Central Asia and China. After the way China took Italy by storm in the fourth session of their Bermuda Bowl quarter final the Azzuri could be forgiven for thinking he should never have left Venice.

Marco Polo, by Wikipedia

Marco Polo was a merchant from the Venetian Republic whose travels are recorded in Il Milione, a book which did much to introduce Europeans to Central Asia and China. He learned about trading whilst his father and uncle, Niccolò and Maffeo, travelled through Asia and met Kublai Khan. In 1269, they returned to Venice to meet Marco for the first time. The three of them embarked on an epic journey to Asia, returning after 24 years to find Venice at war with Genoa; Marco was imprisoned, and dictated his stories to a cellmate. He was released in 1299, became a wealthy merchant, married and had 3 children. He died in 1324, and was buried in San Lorenzo.


It Happened one Night, by Mark Horton

It Happened One Night is a 1934 American romantic comedy film with elements of screwball comedy directed and co-produced by Frank Capra, in collaboration with Harry Cohn, in which a pampered socialite (Claudette Colbert) tries to get out from under her father’s thumb and falls in love with a roguish reporter (Clark Gable). It was the first movie to win all five major Academy Awards (Best Picture, Director, Actor, Actress, and Screenplay). In 2013, the film underwent an extensive restoration.

It Happened One Night, by Wikipedia

It Happened One Night is a 1934 American pre-Code romantic comedy film with elements of screwball comedy directed and co-produced by Frank Capra, in collaboration with Harry Cohn, in which a pampered socialite (Claudette Colbert) tries to get out from under her father's thumb and falls in love with a roguish reporter (Clark Gable). The plot is based on the August 1933 short story "Night Bus" by Samuel Hopkins Adams, which provided the shooting title. One of the last romantic comedies created before the MPAA began enforcing the 1930 production code in 1934, the film was released on February 22, 1934.

It Happened One Night was the first movie to win all five major Academy Awards (Best Picture, Director, Actor, Actress, and Screenplay). In 1993, It Happened One Night was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress, being deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant". In 2013, the film underwent an extensive restoration.


Bidding misadventures, by Mark Horton

Scylla and Charybdis are two sea monsters of Greek mythology who were situated on opposite sides of the Strait of Messina between Sicily and Calabria, in Italy. They were located in close enough proximity to each other that they posed an inescapable threat to passing sailors; avoiding Charybdis meant passing too closely to Scylla and vice versa.

In Homer’s Odyssey, Odysseus was forced to choose which monster to confront while passing through the strait and he opted to pass by Scylla and lose only a few sailors, rather than risk the loss of his entire ship into the whirlpool.

Between Scylla and Charybdis, by Wikipedia

Scylla and Charybdis are two sea monsters of Greek mythology who were situated on opposite sides of the Strait of Messina between Sicily and Calabria, in Italy. They were located in close enough proximity to each other that they posed an inescapable threat to passing sailors; avoiding Charybdis meant passing too closely to Scylla and vice versa.

Odysseus was forced to choose which monster to confront while passing through the strait; he opted to pass by Scylla and lose only a few sailors, rather than risk the loss of his entire ship into the whirlpool. Jason and the Argonauts were able to navigate through without incident due to Hera's assistance, while Aeneas was able to bypass the deadly strait altogether.


Memory, by Mark Horton

Memory is a show tune from the 1981 musical Cats. It is sung by the character Grizabella, a one-time glamour cat who is now only a shell of her former self. The song is a nostalgic remembrance of her glorious past and a declaration of her wish to start a new life. Sung briefly in the first act and in full near the end of the show, Memory is the climax of the musical, and by far its most popular and best-known song. Elaine Paige originated the role of Grizabella in the West End production of Cats, the first to perform the song publicly on stage and bringing attention to its writers Andrew Lloyd Webber and Trevor Nunn.

Memory, by Wikipedia

"Memory" is a show tune from the 1981 musical Cats. It is sung by the character Grizabella, a one-time glamour cat who is now only a shell of her former self. The song is a nostalgic remembrance of her glorious past and a declaration of her wish to start a new life. Sung briefly in the first act and in full near the end of the show, "Memory" is the climax of the musical, and by far its most popular and best-known song. Elaine Paige originated the role of Grizabella in the West End production of Cats, the first to perform the song publicly on stage and bringing attention to its writers Andrew Lloyd Webber and Trevor Nunn, who received the 1981 Ivor Novello award for Best Song Musically and Lyrically.

This excerpt is part of one enormous article covering the Winter Games. It is broken into 26 parts, each containing some tidbit about a play, musical or opera. The vast majority appear to be taken from Wikipedia, but I won't reproduce them all. Here are the first five.


Scaramouche, by Mark Horton

Scaramouche is a romantic adventure film based on the 1921 novel Scaramouche by Rafael Sabatini as well as the 1952 film version starring Stewart Granger as André Moreau. Ah, I hear you say, the advertised theme of the Bulletins is the theatre. Be patient dear reader, all will be revealed in a moment.

In France just prior to the Revolution, Marie Antoinette asks her cousin Noel, the Marquis de Maynes to uncover the identity of Marcus Brutus, a dangerous pamphleteer rousing hatred of the aristocracy (Moreau’s best friend).

Meanwhile, Moreau, a nobleman’s bastard, kidnaps his beloved Lenore to keep her from marrying another man. Afterwards, Moreau learns that his father is the Count de Gavrillac. While travelling to meet his parents, Moreau runs into Aline de Gavrillac, the Queen’s ward, when her carriage breaks down. They are strongly attracted to each other, but Moreau’s ardour suddenly cools when he learns that she is his half-sister.

By chance, de Maynes a master swordsman, encounters Marcus Brutus, provokes him into a duel, then toys with his inexperienced opponent before killing him. Enraged, Moreau attacks, but does no better than his dead friend. After de Maynes easily disarms him several times, Moreau chooses discretion over valour and flees for his life, vowing to kill de Maynes the same way he slew de Valmorin:

“You’re going to die as he died, by the sword. You’ll be driven back step by step, until you stand helpless as he did. Then I, Andre Moreau, will kill you as you killed him. I swear it, Philippe. By all that I hold sacred, I swear you this man’s death!”

As the plot unravels Moreau takes lessons from de Maynes’ personal fencing instructor, Doutreval and then his teacher, Perigore. In the climax the rivals engage in a spectacular encounter which takes place a performance of the De Binet Troupe in the theatre (you see, it fits our theme – just). The prolonged duel (reputedly the longest in screen history at about seven minutes) ranges throughout the theatre, from the balcony boxes, to the lobby, through the main seats, onto the stage, into the backstage area, and finally back on the stage itself. At the end, Moreau has de Maynes at his mercy, backed against the proscenium arch, defeated, helpless as Philippe de Valmorin had been; but something he cannot explain stays his hand. Moreau stabs his sword into the stage and stalks off, leaving de Maynes bloodied but alive.

Later, Moreau learns from Philippe’s father that his father was not the Count de Gavrillac, but rather the old Marquis de Maynes, the Count de Gavrillac’s friend; Noel de Maynes, the man he could not kill, is his halfbrother. He then realizes that he is not related to Aline after all, so they can be married. Lenore, after giving him her blessing, consoles herself with a certain Corsican officer.

Scaramouche, by Wikipedia

Scaramouche is a 1952 Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Technicolor romantic adventure film based on the 1921 novel Scaramouche by Rafael Sabatini as well as the 1923 film version starring Ramón Novarro.

In France just prior to the French Revolution, Queen Marie Antoinette (Nina Foch) asks her cousin Noel, the Marquis de Maynes (Mel Ferrer), to uncover the identity of "Marcus Brutus", a dangerous pamphleteer rousing hatred of the aristocracy.

Meanwhile, André Moreau (Stewart Granger), a nobleman's bastard, kidnaps his beloved Lenore (Eleanor Parker) to keep her from marrying another man. Afterwards, Moreau learns that his father is the Count de Gavrillac. While traveling to meet his parent, Moreau runs into Aline de Gavrillac (Janet Leigh), the Queen's ward, when her carriage breaks, down the road. They are strongly attracted to each other, but Moreau's ardor suddenly cools when he learns that she is his half-sister. He hides that information from her.

By chance, de Maynes encounters Marcus Brutus, who turns out to be Moreau's best friend, Philippe de Valmorin (Richard Anderson). A master swordsman, de Maynes provokes de Valmorin into a duel, then toys with his inexperienced opponent before finally killing him. Enraged, Moreau attacks, but does no better than his dead friend. After de Maynes easily disarms him several times, Moreau chooses discretion over valor and flees for his life, vowing to kill de Maynes the same way he slew de Valmorin:

"You're going to die as he died, by the sword. You'll be driven back step by step, until you stand helpless as he did. Then I, Andre Moreau, will kill you as you killed him. I swear it, Philippe. By all that I hold sacred, I swear you this man's death!"

Chased by de Maynes's henchmen, led by the Chevalier de Chabrillaine (Henry Wilcoxon), Moreau hides out in the commedia dell'arte troupe in which Lenore performs. Forced to disguise himself as the character Scaramouche, he discovers a hidden talent for acting. Burning for revenge, Moreau seeks out de Maynes' personal fencing instructor, Doutreval (John Dehner), and trains diligently in secret for weeks, while also performing with the troupe. However, de Maynes interrupts one such training session and they fight for a second time. Moreau is still overmatched. He is saved only when Aline and Doutreval unexpectedly intervene, allowing Moreau to escape.

Moreau decides that, to surpass de Maynes, he needs to learn from Doutreval's teacher, Perigore (Richard Hale), so he takes the troupe to Paris. There, Dr. Dubuque (John Litel), a deputy of the new National Assembly, seeks his help. The aristocrats in the assembly are systematically killing off the deputies representing the common people by provoking them into duels. Moreau is not interested, until Dubuque mentions that de Maynes is one of the duelists. Then he eagerly accepts the seat of a deceased deputy. Each day, he shows up at the assembly to challenge de Maynes, only to find his enemy absent on trivial but official duties, arranged by Aline and Lenore working together to protect the man they both love. However, other nobles in the National Assembly are eager to fight the newcomer, challenging him on a daily basis. Moreau wins each duel, gaining valuable experience with the sword in the process.

In the meantime, de Maynes becomes engaged to Aline. Overhearing de Maynes' intention to confront Moreau that night, Aline persuades him to take her out instead. At the suggestion of de Chabrillaine (who had been lucky to survive his duel with Moreau), they attend a performance of the De Binet Troupe. At last, Andre has his opportunity for revenge. The two men engage in a spectacular, prolonged duel (reputedly the longest in screen history at about seven minutes) that ranges throughout the theater, from the balcony boxes, to the lobby, through the main seats, onto the stage, into the backstage area, and finally back on the stage itself. At the end, Moreau has de Maynes at his mercy, backed against the proscenium arch, defeated, helpless as Philippe de Valmorin had been; but something he cannot explain stays his hand. Moreau stabs his sword into the stage and stalks off, leaving de Maynes bloodied but alive.

Later, Moreau learns from Philippe's father (Lewis Stone) that his father was not the Count de Gavrillac, but rather the old Marquis de Maynes, the Count de Gavrillac's friend; Noel de Maynes, the man he could not kill, is his half-brother. He then realizes that he is not related to Aline after all, so they can be married. Lenore, after giving him her blessing, consoles herself with a certain Corsican officer.


The Lesson, by Mark Horton

The Lesson (La Leçon) is a one-act play by French-Romanian playwright Eugène Ionesco. It was first performed in 1951 in a production directed by Marcel Cuvelier (who also played the Professor). Since 1957 it has been in permanent showing at Paris’ Théâtre de la Huchette, on an Ionesco double-bill with The Bald Soprano. The play is regarded as an important work in the “Theatre of the Absurd”.

This play takes place in the office and dining room of a small French flat. The Professor, a man of 50 to 60, is expecting a new Pupil (aged 18). The Professor’s Maid, a stout, red-faced woman of 40 to 50, worries about the Professor’s health. As the absurd and nonsensical lesson progresses, the Professor grows more and more angry with what he perceives as the Pupil’s ignorance, and the Pupil becomes more and more quiet and meek. Even her health begins to deteriorate, and what starts as a toothache develops into her entire body aching. At the climax of the play, after a long bout of non sequiturs (which are frequently used in Ionesco’s plays), the Professor stabs and murders the Pupil. The play ends with the Maid greeting a new Pupil, taking the play full circle, back to the beginning.

The Lesson, by Wikipedia

The Lesson (French: La Leçon) is a one-act play by French-Romanian playwright Eugène Ionesco. It was first performed in 1951 in a production directed by Marcel Cuvelier (who also played the Professor). Since 1957 it has been in permanent showing at Paris' Théâtre de la Huchette, on an Ionesco double-bill with The Bald Soprano. The play is regarded as an important work in the "Theatre of the Absurd".

This play takes place in the office and dining room of a small French flat. The Professor, a man of 50 to 60, is expecting a new Pupil (aged 18). The Professor's Maid, a stout, red-faced woman of 40 to 50, worries about the Professor's health. As the absurd and nonsensical lesson progresses, the Professor grows more and more angry with what he perceives as the Pupil's ignorance, and the Pupil becomes more and more quiet and meek. Even her health begins to deteriorate, and what starts as a toothache develops into her entire body aching. At the climax of the play, after a long bout of non sequiturs (which are frequently used in Ionesco's plays), the Professor stabs and murders the Pupil. The play ends with the Maid greeting a new Pupil, taking the play full circle, back to the beginning.


Romeo & Juliet, by Mark Horton

Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare early in his career about two young star-crossed lovers whose deaths ultimately reconcile their feuding families. It was among Shakespeare’s most popular plays during his lifetime and along with Hamlet, is one of his most frequently performed plays. Today, the title characters are regarded as archetypal young lovers. It is with good reason that their names are preserved as part of the phonetic alphabet.

Romeo and Juliet, by Wikipedia

Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare early in his career about two young star-crossed lovers whose deaths ultimately reconcile their feuding families. It was among Shakespeare's most popular plays during his lifetime and along with Hamlet, is one of his most frequently performed plays. Today, the title characters are regarded as archetypal young lovers.


Le Cid, by Mark Horton

Le Cid is a five-act French tragicomedy written by Pierre Corneille, first performed in December 1636 at the Théâtre du Marais in Paris and published the same year. An enormous popular success, Le Cid was the subject of a heated polemic over the norms of dramatic practice known as the Querelle du Cid (Quarrel of The Cid.) Cardinal Richelieu’s Académie française acknowledged the play’s success, but determined that it was defective, in part because it did not respect the classical unities.

Today, Le Cid is widely regarded as Corneille’s finest work, and is considered one of the greatest plays of the seventeenth century.

When first performed the play was a success, although it was quite controversial due to its divergence from the standard playwriting guidelines of the time. The piece was groundbreaking for a few reasons. It had a happy ending, which was rare for “tragedies” of the time, and allowed later tragicomic playwrights to end their plays in a variety of ways.

Le Cid, by Wikipedia

Le Cid is a five-act French tragicomedy written by Pierre Corneille, first performed in December 1636 at the Théâtre du Marais in Paris and published the same year. It is based on Guillén de Castro's play Las Mocedades del Cid. Castro's play in turn is based on the legend of El Cid.

An enormous popular success, Corneille's Le Cid was the subject of a heated polemic over the norms of dramatic practice known as the Querelle du Cid (Quarrel of The Cid.) Cardinal Richelieu's Académie française acknowledged the play's success, but determined that it was defective, in part because it did not respect the classical unities.

Today, Le Cid is widely regarded as Corneille's finest work, and is considered one of the greatest plays of the seventeenth century.

Le Cid was originally staged at the Théâtre du Marais in December of 1636. The play was a success, although it was quite controversial due to its divergence from the standard playwriting guidelines of the time. The piece was groundbreaking for a few reasons. It had a happy ending, which was rare for "tragedies" of the time, and allowed later tragicomic playwrights to end their plays in a variety of ways. Critics tried to hold the play up to Aristotle's Poetics and its prescriptions, but Corneille argued that great tragic characters are inherently implausible. He took a difficult topic and showed, rather realistically, how it might occur. This disagreement and the discussions following it are known as "La Querelle du Cid," or The Quarrel of The Cid.